SIM4LIFE » Physics Models » P-EM-FDTD

 Physics Models: P-EM-FDTD

 Electromagnetics Full Wave Solvers

The Electromagnetics Full Wave Solvers (P-EM-FDTD) enable accelerated full-wave, large-scale EM modeling (> billion voxels) using Yee discretization on geometrically adaptive, inhomogeneous, rectilinear meshes with conformal sub-cell correction and thin layer models, offering support for dispersive materials. The solvers also include many unique features for EM safety assessments (see IMSAFE).

Near-field and over-the-air (OTA) optimization of complex transmitters for handheld or body-mounted devices.

Optimal simulation speed is achieved with native Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and MPI accelerations, which were developed by our team that first introduced EM accelerated solvers together with Acceleware in 2006.

The unique bidirectional Huygens box approach overcomes the difficulties associated with models that extend across multiple scales and require strongly varying resolutions.

As the most frequently applied solvers in near-field dosimetry, they have been extensively validated and documented according to the IEEE/IEC 62704-1 standard as well as by comparisons with measured data (> 200 publications). Comprehensive documentation is available for Sim4Life.


  Application Areas

  • MRI pTx RF Coil Design
  • MRI Rx RF Coil Design
  • MRI RF Coil Design with
    Gradient Interaction


  • MRI Tx RF Coil Design w/
    Gradient Interaction & Safety
  • MRI Gradient Coil Design
  • Active and Passive Implants
    MRI Safety


  • RF Hyperthermia
  • RF Tumor Ablation
  • Biomedical Devices
  • SAR Assessment

  Key Features

  • Transient, Broadband, and Harmonic simulations (Time-Domain Solver)
  • Results from time and frequency domains
  • Automatic simulation termination
  • ARMA engine for early time convergence detection
  • Non-homogeneous intelligent gridder engine (geometry detection)
  • Run-time monitoring
  • Lossy dielectric and magnetic materials
  • Frequency-dependent dielectric and magnetic materials (Debye, Lorentz, Drude, Drude-Lorentz)
  • Metamaterials (double negative)


  • Non-linear materials (Kerr-Effect, Raman-Scattering)
  • Lossy real metals, thin metal sheets and coatings
  • Temperature relevant parameters for T and EM-T solver
  • Predefined materials database (metals, dielectrics, anatomical)
  • User-defined signal source (pulse, step, saw, arbitrary,
  • Discrete sources (1-D, single edge)
  • Plane-wave and Huygens box sources (total-field /scattered-field)
  • Remote and Iterative Huygens engines (incl. backscattering)


  • Lumped elements (R, L, C, predefined serial/parallel)
  • Parametric sources, lumped elements, sensors
  • ABC, PEC, PMC, periodic boundaries
  • Analytic boundaries (Mur, Higdon)
  • UPML and CPML boundaries with adjustable absorption
  • Execution through Command Line or GUI
  • SIBC accelerated for Broadband and Harmonic
  • Fully automated multi-port SParameter extraction
  • Results of S-Parameters extracted vs. frequency or in steady state

MRI birdcage design: Analysis of load dependence.

Evaluation of an MR-safe deep brain stimulator implant.

Fast and accurate rectilinear discretization of an
anatomical human model.