Validation HW » TSM

TSM

Tissue Simulating Media for RF Safety Evaluation at MR Frequencies

The tissue simulating media (TSM) developed by ZMT for radiofrequency (RF) safety evaluations at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequencies are easy to apply, stable over time, and their dielectric parameters have a minimal temperature coefficient. Additionally, ZMT’s TSM products are prepared from innocuous materials for safe use by personnel and environmentally friendly disposal.

High-precision dielectric parameter measurements of TSM using SPEAG’s DAK probe.

 

These TSM meet the specifications set by the ISO/IEC AIMD JWG Test Specification TS10974 and are valid for 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI scanners (other frequencies on request). They adequately simulate the thermal and dielectric properties of the body’s tissues that vary over more than one order of magnitude at MRI frequencies.

We offer both liquids and gels: liquids are optimal for use with probes for specific absorption rate (SAR) evaluations, while gels are better suited for evaluations with temperature probes.

 

 

 

 

The following liquids and gels are available in 10-liter quantities, and custom-made TSM products can be prepared on request.

 

MRI Tissue Simulating Materials
  Relative Permittivity Conductivity (S/m) Frequency Viscosity

TLe78c0.47@64

78

0.47

64 and 128 MHz

Liquid

TGe78c0.47@64

78

0.47

64 and 128 MHz

HVL*

TLe78c0.65@64

78

0.65

64 and 128 MHz

Liquid

TGe78c0.65@64

78

0.65

64 and 128 MHz

HVL

TLe78c0.78@64

78

0.78

64 and 128 MHz

Liquid

TGe78c0.78@64

78

0.78

64 and 128 MHz

HVL

TLe78c1.20@64

78

1.20

64 and 128 MHz

Liquid

TGe78c1.20@64

78

1.20

64 and 128 MHz

HVL

TLe78c2.20@64

78

2.20

64 and 128 MHz

Liquid

TGe78c2.20@64

78

2.20

64 and 128 MHz

HVL

TLe11.5c.045@64

11.5

0.045

64 MHz

Liquid

TLe11.5c.045@128

11.5

0.045

128 MHz

Liquid

TLe5c.24@2450

5

0.24

2450 MHz

Liquid

HSL300

45.3

0.87

300 MHz

Liquid

*HVL: High Viscosity Liquid